Navigation - Breadcrumbs

Use breadcrumbs to help users understand where they are in the website.

Open this default breadcrumbs example in new window
Copy default breadcrumbs code
<nav class="nhsuk-breadcrumb" aria-label="Breadcrumb">
  <div class="nhsuk-width-container">
    <ol class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__list">
      <li class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__item"><a class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__link" href="/level-one">Level one</a></li>
      <li class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__item"><a class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__link" href="/level-one/level-two">Level two</a></li>
      <li class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__item"><a class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__link" href="/level-one/level-two/level-three">Level three</a></li>
    </ol>
    <p class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__back"><a class="nhsuk-breadcrumb__backlink" href="/level-one/level-two/level-three">Back to Level three</a></p>
  </div>
</nav>
Close default breadcrumbs code
Nunjucks macro options

Use options to customise the appearance, content and behaviour of a component when using a macro, for example, changing the text.

Some options are required for the macro to work; these are marked as "Required" in the option description.

If you're using Nunjucks macros in production with "html" options, or ones ending with "html", you must sanitise the HTML to protect against cross-site scripting exploits.

Nunjucks arguments for default breadcrumbs
Name Type Required Description
Name items Type array Required true Description Array of breadcrumbs item objects.
Name items[].text Type string Required true Description Text to use within the breadcrumbs item.
Name items[].href Type string Required false Description The value of the breadcrumb item link href attribute.
Name items[].attributes Type object Required false Description HTML attributes (for example data attributes) to add to the individual crumb.
Name text Type string Required true Description Text to use for the current page.
Name href Type string Required true Description The value of the current page link href attribute.
Name classes Type string Required false Description Classes to add to the container.
Name attributes Type object Required false Description HTML attributes (for example data attributes) to add to the container.
Copy default breadcrumbs code
{% from 'breadcrumb/macro.njk' import breadcrumb %}

{{ breadcrumb({
  items: [
    {
      href: "/level-one",
      text: "Level one"
    },
    {
      href: "/level-one/level-two",
      text: "Level two"
    }
  ],
  href: "/level-one/level-two/level-three",
  text: "Level three"
}) }}
Close default breadcrumbs code

When to use breadcrumbs

Use breadcrumbs to give users context and let them move back or up a level if they can't find what they want on the page.

When not to use breadcrumbs

Don’t use breadcrumbs in transactional journeys as they can get in the way of the user completing the task.

How to use breadcrumbs

If the full breadcrumb trail doesn't fit the screen size, it can wrap onto 2 lines, but don't break a breadcrumb if it doesn't fit the line.

You don't need to show the current page in the breadcrumb because this information is in the H1.

On mobile, we replace the full breadcrumb trail with a "Back to [parent]" link.

Accessibility

We use aria-label="breadcrumb" as a label in the nav element to let people who use screen readers know what it is.

We add aria-hidden="true" to the svg icons to hide them from people who use screen readers.

Research

We tested breadcrumbs on pages with lots of content about conditions or medicines. People noticed them and appreciated the context they gave. People also used them to get back to where they came from or to get back home.

We took out the breadcrumb links when we tested our pages in transactional journeys (in more than 3 labs). We thought that having extra links would distract users and that fewer people would complete the journey. As we expected, we found that users didn’t miss the links because they were focused on the task.

Get in touch to share your research findings about this pattern.

Have you tested this component?

If so, please share your research findings and let us know how it has worked for you. This will help us improve it for everyone.

Before you start, you will need a GitHub account. It's an open forum where we collect feedback.

If you have any questions, you can message us on Slack. You will need a Slack account if you do not have one. Or you can contact us by email.

Updated: January 2019